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Organic Compounds: Alkanes
Alkanes, simple organic compounds with carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen, are crucial in medicine and material science.
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The Organic Chemistry Tutor


this website as been written by us not only to help undergraduate scholars acquire a sound knowledge and understanding of organic chemistry, but also to help them make the study of chemistry as stimulating, intriguing, and applicable as possible The Organic Chemistry Tutor. our primary end is to give scholars with sound knowledge of organic chemistry that will also be useful in numerous other advanced courses. this website presents a thorough treatment of the principles in a new and instigative way that makes it easier for scholars to learn, and a way that makes it more 

 intriguing for preceptors to educate. the website also introduces the important developments in the vast field of organic chemistry. Our thing in writing this website has been to produce the most readable and effective tutoring textbook that makes it as easy as possible for scholars 

 to discover the seductiveness of organic chemistry in a clear and direct way.

Dr. Bhupinder is an outstanding medical expert with an immense quantum of knowledge and experience in the medical field. He possesses a remarkable skill set that equips him with the capability to give the loftiest position of care to his cases. His exceptional bedside manner and compassionate approach to treating cases is a estimable trait that sets him piecemeal from his peers.

likewise,Dr. Bhupinder’s exceptional communication chops and alertness to cases ’ needs make him an ideal medical professional for anyone seeking medical attention. He provides substantiated care that’s acclimatized to the unique requirements and circumstances of each of his cases, and his compassionate nature allows him to treat each case with the utmost respect and quality.

Bhupinder mehta The Organic Chemistry Tutor


It’s a pleasure to admit the enthusiastic support and backing given to us by numerous people at colorful stages of the development of the handwriting. We are very grateful to ProfessorJ.M. Khurana. Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, for a quick and thoughtful review of the book. We owe our sincere thanks toDr.(Mrs.) Sulekha Dogra( Reader, Maitreyi College. University of Delhi) for a thorough review of the handwriting in its original stages. We especially wish to thank our friend,Dr. Sanjeev Kumar( Reader, Deshbandhu College. University of Delhi).Dr.(Mrs.) LalitaS. Kumar( Reader, School of lores, Indira Gandhi National Open University), and Dr. Pankaj Sharma( AGM, Torrent Research Centre, Torrent Pharmaceuticals Lid.) for their tolerance in harkening to our generalities and ideas and for healthy review of the motifs of their interest. We’re also indebted toDr. Hema Rawat( a postgraduate pupil in medical lores) for her precious suggestions related to medicines( in Chapter 29) and for her help in simplifying the specialized textbook for easy understanding by scholars without lacing the meaning of medical languages. We’re thankful to our’ computer expertise’ whoreson Mayank Mehta for his backing in the medication of the original draft of the handwriting. We owe a great debt of gratefulness to the staff of Prentice- Hall of India, New Delhi. Their unvarying support and enthusiasm helped make the book a reality. We appreciate the extraordinary sweats put into Typesetting the work by Tej Composers, New Delhi, to our entire satisfaction. Eventually, we’re thankful to our associates and scholars-Constant source of alleviation for the creation of this text.- our commerce with them has been a 


About the Authors

Bhupinder mehta The Organic Chemistry Tutor

Dr. BHUPINDER MEHTA andDr. MANJU MEHTA( hubby and woman)

Cherishing the minutes after investing three and a half times in composing this book

Bhupinder Mehta entered his Bachelor’s degree in Chemistry( Respects) in l981, Master’s degree in 1983 andPh.D. in 1988, all from the College of Delhi. He was granted the National Justify Grant amid his postgraduate considers and latterly granted a partnership by the Committee of Logical and Mechanical Investigate for seeking after investigation work in the zone of sulfur and nitrogen- containing heterocyclic composites. He has nine investigation distributions to his credit.Dr. Bhupinder Mehta begun his mentoring calling in 1988 and at display is an Relate Teacher in the Office of Chemistry, at Swami Shraddhanand College, College of Delhi. He has around twenty times encounter of mentoring natural chemistry. Manju Mehta, née Rawat entered her Bachelor’s degree in Chemistry( Respects) in 1987. Master’s degree in 1989 and PhD in 1993, all from the College of Delhi. She was announced by the Central Board of Auxiliary Instruction, among the best one per cent of researchers( 26th rank) in her Senior School Examination in 1984. She was granted the Undergrad Science Justify Grant by the College of Delhi and latterly granted a cooperation by the College subventions Commission for seeking after investigation work in the region of sulfur and nitrogen- containing heterocyclic composites. She has three investigation distributions to her credit.Dr. Manju Mehta begun her coaching calling in 1993 and at display is an Relate Teacher the Division of Chemistry, Maitreyi College, College of Delhi. She has around fifteen times involvement of coaching natural chemistry.

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What is Organic Chemistry Tutor ?

Are you struggling to understand the complex world of organic chemistry? Do reactions, mechanisms, and functional groups leave you feeling overwhelmed? If so, then it’s time to meet your new best friend: The Organic Chemistry Tutor! With their in-depth knowledge, teaching experience, patience, empathy, and excellent communication skills, th


benzene reacts with fuming sulfuric acid (sulfuric acid rich in sulfur trioxide.So4 content produces
benzenesulfonic acid. The electrophile in this case sulfur trioxide, is a neutral but electron-deficient molecule. Sulfonation

Nature of Groups

Nature of Groups The group attached to benzene ring may be electron-releasing due to inductive (+l) or resonance
effect (+R) e.g. -OH, -NH², -NHR, -NR², -CH³, -0CH³, CI, Br, I, F.
Similarly, due to inductive (-I) or resonance effect (-R) a group may exhibit electron-
withdrawing nature e.g. -NO²,, -CN, -CHO, C=0, -COOH, -COOR, SO³ H.

Reaction with Lucas reagent (HCI + anhydrous ZnCl2,)

(Test for distinguishing 1, 2°, and 3° alcohol]  Reaction with Lucas reagent. The reaction of alcohol with HCI in the presence of anhydrous ZnCl2, (called Lucas reagent) results in the formation of corresponding chloroalkanes. The alcohols are soluble in Lucas reagent whereas the chloroalkanes formed are insoluble.

By reduction

The aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids. acid chlorides. esters. and acid anhydrides, on reduction result in the formation of corresponding alcohols. by reduction Different types of reducing agents are used Tor reduction of these classes of organic compounds. The common methods used for the reduction of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols are

Orientation and Reactivity

Orientation and Reactivity Electron releasing groups activate the ring towards electrophilic substitution and direct the electrophile towards ortho- and para-position. Electron withdrawing groups deactivate the ring towards electrophilic substitution and direct the electrophile towards meta-position.


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